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Marshal of the Soviet Union ZAKHAROV, Matvei Vasilievich: 5.8.1898 - 31.1.1972.

Zakharov was in Petrograd in the First World War and avoided being conscripted into the Army. He came out actively against the war, joined the Red Guard in April 1917 and stormed the Winter Palace. He then took part in the suppression of anti-communist manifestations and held unimportant posts in the Red Army. By 1936 he had worked himself up to the command of a regiment. The great purge opened up many vacancies, and in July 1937 Zakharov was Chief of Staff of the Leningrad Military District, and, from May 1938, Deputy Chief of the General Staff. During the war he was Chief of Staff of the 9th Army and later front, and, after the war, Head of the General Staff Academy. He became chief of the GRU in January 1949. In June 1952 a fierce struggle broke out about convening the 19th Party Congress. The Politburo insisted, Stalin objected. The Chief of the General Staff Shtemyenko, and the Chief of the GRU Zakharov, supported Stalin and were dismissed from their posts. After Stalin's death Zakharov's fall continued, but in May 1953 he was appointed Commander of the Leningrad Military District and was able to hold on to this post. In October 1957 a struggle broke out between the Politburo and Marshal Zhukov. Zakharov was fully on the side of the Politburo and for this he was immediately appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany. In 1959 he was made Marshal of the Soviet Union, and Chief of the General Staff in 1960. In 1963 he was dismissed. He took an active part in the conspiracy against Khruschev and, after the successful coup d'etat was re-appointed Chief of the General Staff where he served up to September 1971 practically up to the time of his death.

Colonel-General SHALIN, Mikhail Alekseevich was chief of the GRU from 1951-56 and from November 1957 to December 1958.

General of the Army SEROV, Ivan Alekseevich.

An officer of military intelligence, at the time of the purges of the GRU he managed not only to survive but also to transfer to work in the NKVD. On 12 June 1937 he appeared in the capacity of executioner of Marshal Tukhachevski and other leading figures of the Red Army. Amongst all the protagonists of the terror he distinguished himself as the most fervent exponent of 'scenes on a massive scale'. He took part in the pursuit and liquidation of the inhabitants of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 1940 and in 1944-47. Data exists as to his personal involvement in the murder of the Polish officers in Katyn. During the war Serov was one of the leaders of Smersh, and in August 1946 he personally took part in the execution of the command of the Russian Liberation Army under Lieut-General Vlasov. Subsequently he betrayed his leaders in Smersh and the NKGB, going over in time to the camp of the victorious groups. He deserted Abakumov's group for that of Beria and betrayed him (as did General Ivashutin - the present GRU leader). In 1953 he was deputy chief of the GRU and one of the conspirators against Beria. After the fall of Beria, Serov became Chairman of the KGB. Together with Ambassador Andropov he seized the leaders of the Hungarian revolution by deceit and took part in their torture and execution. In December 1958 Serov became chief of the GRU. As an ex-KGB and Smersh officer he had many enemies in the GRU. Under Serov's leadership, corruption in GRU attained unbelievable proportions. In 1962 he was dismissed and quietly liquidated.

Serov's was the dirtiest career in the history of the GRU. He displayed a high degree of personal sadism. The years when Serov was chief of the GRU were also the most unproductive in its history. It was the only period when GRU officers voluntarily made contact with Western services and gave them much more valuable information than they took from them.

General of the Army IVASHUTIN, Peter Ivanovitch: 5.9.1909

A volunteer in the punitive formations of the Special Purpose Units, Ivashutin came into Army counter-intelligence from 1931. During the war he held leading posts in Smersh. Even at this time Ivashutin had powerful enemies in the NKGB. In 1944-45 he was chief of Smersh on the 3rd Ukrainian Front and in that capacity waged a ferocious struggle against the Ukrainian insurgent army and played an active role in the establishment of communist order in Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Hungary. It was at this time that he first met Brezhnev, and in all subsequent activities the two men always supported each other. At the end of the war Ivashutin took part in the forcible repatriation of Soviet citizens who did not want to return to the Soviet Union. He also played a special part in the liquidation of soldiers and officers of the Russian Liberation Army. After the disbandment of Smersh he managed to outlive its other leaders by a timely transfer out of the Abakumov faction into that of Beria. At Beria's downfall he went over to the Serov faction and was appointed head of the KGB 3rd Chief Directorate. He then took part in the arrest and liquidation of Serov. On Brezhnev's recommendation in 1963, Ivashutin was appointed chief of the GRU. In this position he had a number of very serious confrontations with the KGB and personally with Andropov. However, Ivashutin defended the interests of the Army with more vigour than any of his predecessors and, therefore, in spite of his past ties with the KGB, enjoyed unlimited support from the first deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers, the chairman of the Military Industrial Complex Smirnov as well as Marshals Ustinov and Ogarkov. After Andropov's coming to power Ivashutin held on to his post in view of powerful support within the Army.

Appendix B

The GRU High Command and Leading GRU Officers

The following list gives names of the most prominent senior GRU officers with their official titles where possible. This is followed by an alphabetical list of some of the known operational officers working under cover around the world.

Army General IVASHUTIN, Petr Ivanovich: deputy chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces. Head of GRU. Official pseudonyms 'Tovarishch Mikhailov', 'Dyadya Petya'. The first pseudonym is also used in connection with all military intelligence.

Col-General LEMZENKO, Kir Gavrilovich: GRU representative in the Party Central Committee; 'Papa Rimski'.

Col-General PAVLOV, Aleksandr Grigorevich: first deputy chief of GRU.

Admiral BEKRENEV: deputy chief of GRU.

Col-General ZOTOV, Arkady Vasilievich: deputy chief of GRU, head of Information.

Col-General MESHCHERYAKOV, V.V.: deputy chief of GRU, head of the Military Diplomatic Academy.

Col-General IZOTOV, S.I.: head of GRU Personnel Directorate.

Col-General SIDOROV, Y.I.

Lieutenant-Generals and Vice Admirals (approximately 20)

Lt-General DOLIN, G.I.: head of GRU Political Department.

Lt-General GURENKO, Vyacheslav Tikhonovich: head of the Illegals Training Centre.

Lt-General Aviation SHATALOV, Vladimir Aleksandrovich: GRU representative at the Cosmonaut Training Centre.

Lt-General KOLODYAZHNY, Boris Gavrilovich: GRU deputy chief for Internal Security.

Lt-General MILSTEIN, Moshe: GRU deputy chief for Disinformation. A former illegal and author of top secret manual Honourable Service. Codename 'Tovarishch M', 'Mikhail M.'.

Lt-General KOSTIN P.T.: chief of GRU 3rd (?) Directorate.

Lt-General Engineer PALIY A.: chief of GRU 6th Directorate.

Lt-General GONTAR: chief of GRU 7th Directorate.

Lt-General DRACHEV I.M.

Lt-General KOZLOV M.: Chief of GRU llth (?) Directorate.

Lt-General BERKUTOV, S.: Information Service.

Vice Admiral ROZHKO, Gennadi Aleksandrovich.

Major-Generals and Rear Admirals (approximately 125)

Maj-General Aviation CHIZHOV, Mikhail Terentyevich.

Rear Admiral KALININ, Valeri Petrovich.

Maj-General Aviation KUCHUMOV, Aleksandr Mikhailovich.

Maj-General SHITOV.

Rear Admiral KLYUZOV, Serafim Timofeevich.

Maj-General BARANOV, Aleksandr Vasilievich.

Maj-General LYALIN, Mikhail Ammosovich.

Maj-General BEPPAEV S.U.: Chief of Intelligence of Group Soviet Forces in Germany.

Maj-General Artillery LYUBIMOV, Viktor Andreevich.

Maj-General GONCHAROV, Gennadi Grigorevich.

Maj-General KHOMYAKOV, Aleksandr Sergeevich.

Rear Admiral KOZLOV, Andrei Nikolaevich.

Maj-General MIKHAILOV, Boris Nikolaevich.

Maj-General ZIMIN, Valentin Yakovlevich.

Maj-General ANDRYANOV, V.: Spetsnaz.

Maj-General Aviation MIKRYUKOV, L.

Maj-General GLAZUNOV, N.

Rear Admiral SMIRNOV, M.

Leading GRU Officers

ABRAMOV, Vladimir Mikhailovich

BAYLIN, Vladimir Ivanovich

BELOUSOV, Mikolai Mikhailovich

BELOUSOV, Konstantin Nikolaevich

BLINOV, Boris Afanasyevich BARCHUGOV

BORISOV, Gennadi Alekseevich

BORODIN, Viktor Mikhailovich BUDENNY

BOROVINSKI, Petr Fedorovich

BUBNOV, Nikolai Ivanovich

BUTAKOV, Ilya Petrovich

DEMIN, Mikhail Alekseevich DENISOV

DORONKIN, Kirill Sergeevich

EGOROV, Anatoli Egorovich

ERMAKOV, Aleksandr Ivanovich

ERSHOV, Yuri Alekseevich

EVDOKIMOV, Sergei Vasilevich

FEKLENKO, Vladimir Nikolaevich

FILATOV, Anatoli

FILIPPOV, Anatoli Vasilevich

GENERALOV, Vsevolod Nikolaevich GERASIMOV

KAPALKIN, Sergei Vasilevich

KASHEVAROV, Evgeni Mikhailovich

KOZYPITSKI, Gleb Sergeevich

LOVCHIKOV, Vasili Dmitrievich

LAVROV, Valeri Alecseevich

LEMEKHOV, Dmitri Aleksandrovich

LOBANOV, Vitali Ilich

LOGINOV, Igor Konstantinovich

MOROZOV, Ivan Yakovlevich

MYAKISHEV, Aleksei Nikolaevich

NEDOZOROV, Valentin Viktorovich

NOSKOV, Nikolai Stepanovich

OSIPOV, Oleg Aleksandrovich

PAVLENKO, Yuri Kuzmich

PETROV, Nikolai Kirillovich

PIVOBAROV, Oleg Ivanovich

POLYAKOV, Boris Alekseevich

POPOV, Gennadi Fedorovich

POTAPENKO, Leonid Terentyevich

POTSELUEV, Evgeni Aleksandrovich

PUTILIN, Mikhail Semenovich

RATNIKOV, Valentin Mikhailovich

RADIONOV, Aleksandr Sergeevich

ROMANOV, Anatoli Aleksandrovich

RUBANOV, Aleksandr Nikolaevich

SALEKHOV, Yuri Nikolaevich

SAVIN, Viktor Grigorevich

SELUNSKI, Valentin Ivanovich

SEMENOV, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

SERGEEV, Yuri Pavlovich

SHEPELEV, Viktor Petrovich

SHIPOV, Vladilen Nikolaevich

SOKOLOV, Viktor Aleksandrovich

STRELBITSKI, Vladimir Vasilevich

STUDENIKIN, Ivan Yakovlevich

SUKHAREV, Georgi Nikolaevich

SUVOROV, Georgi Borisovich

UMNOV, Valentin Aleksandrovich

VETROV, Yuri Pavlovich

VILKOV, Boris Nikolaevich

VINOGRADOV, Feliks Vasilevich

VOLNOV, Vladimir Grigorevich

VOLOKITIN, Vladimir Ivanovich

VOTRIN, Sergei Ivanovich

VYBORNOV, Ivan Yakovlevich

YAKUSHEV, Ivan Ivanovich

YURASOV, Viktor Vladimirovich

ZHELANNOV, Vladimir Mikhailovich

ZHEREBTSON, Aleksandr Vasilevich

ZHERNOV, Leonid Andreevich

ZHURAVLEV, Ivan Mikhailovich

ZOTOV, Viktor Nikolaevich

Appendix C

Some Case Histories of GRU Activities

Rather than sprinkling the text with examples I have put together a representative sample of GRU officers uncovered in the course of operations abroad, as reported in the press. The number of GRU officers caught and expelled and the nature of their activities is indicative of the power and scale of the GRU.

Canada and the United States

In June 1980 the Canadians announced that they had requested the withdrawal of three Soviet officials from the Embassy, Captain Igor A. Bardeev, Colonel E.I. Aleksanjan and the chauffeur Sokolov. The case involved an unnamed individual employed in a sensitive position in the USA, who had been in contact with the Soviet Embassy and been given the task of obtaining information. Soviet officials had maintained clandestine contact with the American citizen over a period of some months.

France

In October 1979 the Naval and Air Attach6 of the Soviet Embassy in France, Vladimir Kulik, was expelled from the country. He was an officer of the GRU working in French military circles and had been in contact with firms specialising in military supplies. In 1979, at a reception in another embassy, he had met by chance a young Frenchman employed in the armaments department of an important organisation who was carrying out studies on behalf of the Ministry of Defence. Kulik sought to maintain contact with the Frenchman, and in due course offered him a large sum of money for documents from his place of work. He also sought to find out details about other staff at the organisation where the Frenchman worked. Kulik was arrested at the moment when he was about to receive from the Frenchman a document about a French weapon.

In February 1980 the Soviet Consul and No. 2 in Marseilles was withdrawn. He had been detained by the French authorities between Toulon and Marseilles with plans of the Mirage 2000 fighter aircraft in his briefcase. They had just been handed to him by an agent.

Travkov had arrived in 1977. The area of Marseilles and the Bouches du Rhone contains many installations and objects of defence interest. Travkov was officially concerned with 'scientific subjects connected with the port and airport', and these interests enabled him to meet people involved in the aeronautical field and to visit firms and installations. Travkov obtained copies of files on staff working on defence contracts and used the details thus revealed to build up a network of informers. Four Frenchmen were taken into custody at the time of Travkov's arrest. Travkov had also been interested in the twin-jet Mirage 4000 which used the same engine as the 2000.

The Soviet Press Attache declared the French action a 'provocation by the police' but the documents were, of course, genuine. A few days later Frolov, himself a KGB officer, was required to leave France too. He had been in Marseilles for two years and had earlier had a posting to Paris. His job, like Travkov's, had given him opportunities to meet all sorts of people and he had made the most of it. Both Travkov and Frolov were personable, charming individuals who made many friends.

Great Britain

Anatoliy Pavlovich Zotov, the Soviet Naval Attache in London, was expelled in December 1982 after trying to set up a network of agents to gather information about weapons systems and electronic hardware used by the Royal Navy during the Falklands campaign. His interests had also extended to the Royal Navy's nuclear submarines.

Japan

A retired Japanese major-general, Yukihisa Miyanaga was arrested in Tokyo in January 1980. He was a GRU agent whose case officer at the time of his arrest was Colonel Yuriy N. Koslov, Military and Air Attache at the Soviet Embassy. Miyanaga had been recruited as an agent in 1974 by one of Koslov's predecessors. He was equipped with and instructed in various means of clandestine communication, including particular ciphers for use with radio. Miyanaga and two other officers of the Japanese Ground Self-Defence Force were subsequently sentenced to long terms of imprisonment for passing military secrets to the GRU.

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